The CSIR was constituted as a South African Council in 1945 through an Act of Parliament. It is one of the leading scientific and technology research, development and implementation institutions in Africa. The CSIR is committed to supporting innovation in South Africa to improve national competitiveness in the global economy. As one of the organisation’s five Operating Units, CSIR Biosciences’ core focus is to provide bioscience solutions that improve health, food security and bio-energy provision and help create a sustainable biotechnology industry in South Africa that is sensitive to economic realities and the natural environment of the society we live in. The Unit has a critical mass of scientists, engineers and technicians in a number of areas including food science. CSIR Biosciences has been involved in eight INCO FP4 and FP5 projects, one DGXIV project, seven integrated FP6 and one FP7 SSA projects. CSIR Natural Resources and Environment (NRE) Unit has expertise in climate change and agriculture.